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Glossary


The glossary contains 145 key terms considered important for the clear understanding of the Japanese higher education and quality assurance system. For PDF format, please visit the page of Information Package.

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A

Academic Assistant

Workers staffed for assisting the implementation of academic programs (e.g. teaching assistants). Under NIAD-UE's Standards for Evaluation and Accreditation, it is expected that subject institutions utilize academic assistants effectively.


Academic Degree/Academic Title
A qualification conferred upon students who successfully complete academic programs of universities, graduate schools and junior colleges. Current degrees included in the Rules for Degrees are Bachelor's, Master's, Doctoral, Professional and Associate Degrees. NIAD-UE awards Bachelor's Degrees to learners who fulfill additional academic achievements after graduation from junior colleges or colleges of technology, and Bachelor's, Master's and Doctoral Degrees to those who successfully complete, at educational institutions set by ministries or agencies, a NIAD-UE-approved program. Colleges of technology and professional training colleges award titles or diplomas, not degrees.


Academic Program
A set of subjects arranged for the achievement of education and research objectives (e.g. bachelor's, master's and doctoral programs), or an academic unit that may replace a department set up in a faculty.


Academic Staff
Staff who conduct education and research in a university or a college such as professors, associate professors, lecturers, assistant professors.


Academic Unit of Graduate School
A basic organizational unit for graduate education and research. The term is legally defined as a unit that students and academic staff belong to, but it may mean either a unit for conducting education and research or a group of academic staff.


Accountability
A general term used to describe the responsibility or the process by which corporations explain or justify their performance to their stakeholders and the public. This is NIAD-UE's fundamental policy of the evaluation system. Through evaluations, NIAD-UE aims to assist universities and colleges in fulfilling accountability to their stakeholders and the public, by clarifying the condition of their activities.


Accreditation
One of the functions of NIAD-UE's certified evaluation and accreditation that examines whether the conditions of subject institutions meet the standards or not. A formal status is conferred upon the institution when approved. NIAD-UE's review on the conditions of professional graduate schools, especially law schools, puts emphasis on accreditation because of the need to clarify the assured quality of institutions which are closely related to the judicial system.


Achievement Evaluation
Evaluation focused on how successfully the institution is achieving its goals and objectives. Examples of this are NIAD-UE's national university education and research evaluation and evaluation of optional evaluation items.


Act of General Rules for Incorporated Administrative Agency
The act constituted in 1999 which provides basic concepts and rules of the system of incorporated administrative agencies. NIAD-UE was established under this act.


Admission Policy
A set of guidelines each institution sets out on the selection and type of students it wishes to enroll. Under NIAD-UE's certified evaluation and accreditation, subject institutions are requested to set a clear admission policy that is disclosed widely to the public, and will be reviewed on if the policy is appropriately followed throughout the process of student admission.


Administrative Council
A mandatory body set up in every national university corporation to discuss key issues of management. It is composed of the president, vice-presidents and staff appointed by the president, and external experts.


Approval System of the Establishment (of Universities)
The systematic process for approving the establishment of a university, a junior college or a college of technology. The Council for University Chartering and School Corporation examines applications in response to requests by the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. The Minister subsequently makes a final decision on approval. The Council is composed of two subcommittees, one on university chartering for examining aspects of teaching and learning and the other on school corporations for financial planning and management, which conducts the process in the light of relevant laws, including the Standards for Establishment of Universities.


Auditing Student System
A system which higher education institutions accept students who take certain subjects for their personal interest only. The distinction between the non-degree student system and the auditing student system is that students on the latter system cannot acquire credits and therefore their studies do not lead to a degree.


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